Beginning from the evening prayer on the 7th of Cheshvan in Eretz Israel, the words “v’ten tal u’matar livracha” (“send dew and rain for a blessing”) are recited in the 9th blessing of “Shemoneh Esrei” (this blessing is known as “Birkas HaShanim”). The Alter Rebbe explains:
– In the blessing concerning material prosperity [the 9th blessing of the Amidah prayer], one must ask for rain in the rainy season… In Eretz Yisrael, we begin asking for rain on the eve of the seventh of MarCheshvan, because it is a hilly land and it requires rain directly after Sukkos. In Babylonia and similar places that are not hilly as is Eretz Yisrael, and [hence] do not need rain immediately after Sukkos, we begin [to ask for rain] from the eve of the sixtieth day after the Tishrey cycle.
Please, find more in ‘Shulchan Aruch’, Chapter 117.
During the period of Beit ha-Mikdash Cheshvan, 7 was the date on which the Jew most distant from Jerusalem arrived home after a 15-day journey following their Sukkot pilgrimage. All bnei Israel would wait for this day before beginning to pray for rain.
Outside of the Holy Land, the prayer for rain is recited beginning on the 60th day after the autumn festivals (which is in December). Please, consult your rabbi or a reliable calendar for the exact date and practical application.